Common Eider

IUCN Red List: Near Threatened

Common Eider nests at middle to high latitude coasts of the Northern Hemisphere (Eurasia and North America). Wintering range is more compressed, with southern limit in southern Alaska, New Jersey (USA), France and Kuril Islands (Russia). Numbers are currently unknown. Major threats are mortality of ducklings from viral diseases, conflict with the shellfish aquaculture industry, extensive use of gillnets, hunting and poisoning from lead shot ingestion, coastal oil pollution, mining activities, unregulated tourism, nest predation by introduced predators, and effects of climate change.

Conservation

■ Listed as Near Threatened (NT) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species since 2015.
■ Listed in Appendix II of Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS, or Bonn Convention) as migratory species that conservation is requiring international cooperation.
■ Listed in Appendix III of the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats as a protected fauna species.
■ Listed in Annex II of EU Council Directive 2009/147/EC on the Conservation of wild birds (the Birds Directive).

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